A maximum transmission unit (MTU) is the largest size packet or frame, specified in octets (eight-bit bytes), that can be sent in a packet- or frame-based network such as the Internet. The Internet's Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) uses the MTU to determine the maximum size of each packet in any transmission. Too large an MTU size may mean retransmissions if the packet encounters a router that can't handle that large a packet. Too small an MTU size means relatively more header overhead and more acknowledgements that have to be sent and handled. Most computer operating systems provide a default MTU value that is suitable for most users. In general, Internet users should follow the advice of their Internet service provider (ISP) about whether to change the default value and what to change it to.
In Windows 95, the default MTU was 1500 octets (eight-bit bytes), partly because this is the Ethernet standard MTU. The Internet de facto standard MTU is 576, but ISPs often suggest using 1500. If you frequently access Web sites that encounter routers with an MTU size of 576, you may want to change to that size. (Apparently some users find that changing the setting to 576 improves performance and others do not find any improvement.) The minimum value that an MTU can be set to is 68.
For more recent Windows systems, the operating system is able to sense whether your connection should use 1500 or 576 and select the appropriate MTU for the connection.
For protocols other than TCP, different MTU sizes may apply.