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Troubleshooting Wireless Networks

  • Crash Course: Windows networking

    Love it or hate it, part of every net admin's job is making your infrastructure work with Microsoft software. In this Windows networking Crash Course, we've assembled our best tips and tricks to make your job easier. Continue Reading

  • encoding and decoding

    Encoding is the process of putting a sequence of characters (letters, numbers, punctuation, and certain symbols) into a specialized digital format for efficient transmission or transfer. Decoding is the opposite process -- the conversion of a ... Continue Reading

  • Turtle Firewall

    Turtle Firewall is an open source firewall program written in Perl that supports Linux Kernels 2.4.x and iptables. Turtle Firewall was written by Andrea Frigido of Frisoft, and is available under the GNU Public License (GPL) . Continue Reading

  • Wireless LAN resources

    These resources will help you avoid potential pitfalls to ensure that your wireless LAN implementation is successful from start to finish. Continue Reading

  • Tech or treat!

    A Halloween tech quiz based on scary terms and concepts. Geeky fun tech trivia for technophiles and technophobes alike. Continue Reading

  • Answer Key: Major IT players: How'd they start out?

    Answer Key: Major IT players: How'd they start out?Continue Reading

  • Wireless LAN quiz

    Take our wireless LAN quiz to find out how much you know about WLAN technologies.Continue Reading

  • Wireless LAN quiz answers

    Wireless LANs quiz answer key.Continue Reading

  • Link Quality Source Routing (LQSR)

    LQSR (Link Quality Source Routing) is a routing protocol for wireless mesh networks. The protocol was developed by Microsoft for use with their MCL (Mesh Connectivity Layer) technology, which facilitates the interconnection of computers into a mesh ...Continue Reading

  • Bluetooth overview

    Bluetooth overview -- discover how it's used and where it fits into the world of wireless.Continue Reading

  • E.164

    E.164 is an international numbering plan for public telephone systems in which each assigned number contains a country code (CC), a national destination code (NDC), and a subscriber number (SN).Continue Reading

  • packet mangling

    Packet mangling is the modification of packets at a packet-based network interface before and/or after routing.Continue Reading

  • packet filtering

    On the Internet, packet filtering is the process of passing or blocking packets at a network interface based on source and destination addresses, ports, or protocols.Continue Reading

  • Media Access Control layer (MAC layer)

    In the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model of communication, the Media Access Control layer is one of two sublayers of the Data Link Control layer and is concerned with sharing the physical connection to the network among several computers.Continue Reading

  • Morse code

    Morse code is a method of sending text messages by keying in a series of electronic pulses, usually represented as a short pulse (called a "dot") and a long pulse (a "dash").Continue Reading

  • Resilient Packet Ring (RPR)

    Resilient Packet Ring (RPR) is a network topology being developed as a new standard for fiber optic rings.Continue Reading

  • subcarrier

    A subcarrier is one telecommunication signal carrier that is carried on top of another carrier so that effectively two signals are carried at the same time.Continue Reading

  • open relay (insecure relay or a third-party relay)

    An open relay (sometimes called an insecure relay or a third-party relay) is an SMTP e-mail server that allows third-party relay of e-mail messages.Continue Reading

  • Serial Digital Interface (SDI)

    Serial Digital Interface (SDI) is a standard for digital video transmission over coaxial cable.Continue Reading

  • varicode

    Varicode is a method of binary character encoding in which the number of bits for each character is not fixed, but varies for each character depending on how often that character occurs in general usage.Continue Reading

  • MFSK (multiple frequency shift keying)

    MFSK (multiple frequency shift keying), also called multi-frequency shift keying, is a method of signal modulation in which discrete audio tone bursts of various frequencies convey digital data.Continue Reading

  • integrated T1 (channelized T1)

    Integrated T1 (also called channelized T is a digital carrier modulation method in which a T1 line is divided into 24 channels, each having a maximum data speed of 64 thousand bits per second (Kbps), and each capable of supporting a unique ...Continue Reading

  • keystone jack

    A keystone jack is a female connector used in data communications, particularly local area networks (LANs).Continue Reading

  • chiral fiber

    Chiral fiber is a specialized optical fiber medium with its core twisted into a helical shape.Continue Reading

  • network perimeter

    A network perimeter is the boundary between the private and locally managed-and-owned side of a network and the public and usually provider-managed side of a network.Continue Reading

  • Infranet Initiative

    The Infranet Initiative is a collaborative effort to develop a high-performance universal public network that would serve as a supplement to the Internet for businesses and other high-demand users.Continue Reading

  • zone

    In general, a zone is an area of administration.Continue Reading

  • B8ZS (bipolar 8-zero substitution, binary 8-zero substitution, clear channel, clear 64)

    B8ZS (bipolar 8-zero substitution, also called binary 8-zero substitution, clear channel, and clear 64) is an encoding method used on T1 circuits that inserts two successive ones of the same voltage - referred to as a bipolar violation - into a ...Continue Reading

  • distributive numerical control (DNC)

    Distributive numerical control (DNC) is a technology that allows a single computer to be networked with one or more machines that use computer numerical control (CNC).Continue Reading

  • terahertz (THz)

    The terahertz, abbreviated THz, is a unit of electromagnetic (EM) wave frequency equal to one trillion hertz (1012 Hz).Continue Reading

  • multimode fiber

    In optical fiber technology, multimode fiber is optical fiber that is designed to carry multiple light rays or modes concurrently, each at a slightly different reflection angle within the optical fiber core.Continue Reading

  • discrete multitone (DMT)

    Discrete multitone (DMT) is a method of separating a Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) signal so that the usable frequency range is separated into 256 frequency bands (or channels) of 4.3125 KHz each.Continue Reading

  • queries-per-second (QPS)

    Queries-per-second (QPS) (or the query-per-second rate) is a measure of how much traffic a particular query server is handling at a given time.Continue Reading

  • RCA connector

    An RCA connector is a plug and a jack designed for use with coaxial cable for frequencies ranging from the very lowest up to several megahertz.Continue Reading

  • long-haul optics

    Long-haul optics refers to the transmission of visible light signals over optical fiber cable for great distances, especially without or with minimal use of repeaters.Continue Reading

  • triangulation

    Triangulation is a process by which the location of a radio transmitter can be determined by measuring either the radial distance, or the direction, of the received signal from two or three different points.Continue Reading

  • coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM)

    Coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) is a method of combining multiple signals on laser beams at various wavelengths for transmission along fiber optic cables, such that the number of channels is fewer than in dense wavelength division ...Continue Reading

  • CDSL (Consumer Digital Subscriber Line)

    Also see our Fast guide to DSL. CDSL (Consumer Digital Subscriber Line) is a version of Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) service, trademarked by Rockwell Corp.Continue Reading

  • A-Law

    A-Law is the standard codec (compression/decompression) algorithm for pulse code modulation (PCM) from the ITU-T (the Telecommunication Standardization Sector of the International Telecommunications Union).Continue Reading

  • whiteboard

    A whiteboard is a non-electronic variation of the traditional "rewriteable" schoolroom blackboard, but is white instead of black and of a material that can be written on with colored markers (known as dry erase markers).Continue Reading

  • gigapop (gigabit point-of-presence)

    Gigapop is short for gigabit point-of-presence, an access point to Internet2, the network collaboration between universities and partners in industry and government to develop advanced Internet technologies and applications such as telemedicine and ...Continue Reading

  • ping sweep (ICMP sweep)

    A ping sweep (also known as an ICMP sweep) is a basic network scanning technique used to determine which of a range of IP addresses map to live hosts (computers).Continue Reading

  • NSFNET

    NSFNET was a network for research computing deployed in the mid-1980s that in time also became the first backbone infrastructure for the commercial public Internet.Continue Reading

  • mu-Law

    Mu-Law is the standard codec (compression/decompression) algorithm for pulse code modulation (PCM) from the CCITT (Consultative Committee for International Telephone and Telegraph).Continue Reading

  • E-ZPass

    E-ZPass is a toll collection system in the northeastern U.S. that uses RFID technology to allow a driver to pass through a tollbooth and pay the toll without stopping the vehicle.Continue Reading

  • information theory

    Information theory is a branch of mathematics that overlaps into communications engineering, biology, medical science, sociology, and psychology.Continue Reading

  • HELLO packet

    In the Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) communications protocol - which enables network routers to share information with each other, a HELLO packet is a special packet (message) that is sent out periodically from a router to establish and confirm ...Continue Reading

  • hoot-n-holler

    In telecommunications, a hoot-n-holler is a dedicated "always on" connection used for two-way business-to-business voice communication.Continue Reading

  • Freephone

    In the U.K., Freephone is a type of Number Translation Service (NTS) that allows a phone user to call a non-geographic number beginning with 0800 or 0500 without incurring a charge.Continue Reading

  • multi-tapping

    Multi-tapping is an older procedure used to enter text using a telephone keypad.Continue Reading

  • Home Location Register (HLR)

    The Home Location Register (HLR) is the main database of permanent subscriber information for a mobile network.Continue Reading

  • circular mil

    The circular mil is a unit of area used especially when denoting the cross-sectional size of a wire or cable.Continue Reading

  • line doubler

    A line doubler is an electronic device that converts analog or digital television (TV) video signals into a format suitable for display on a computer monitor.Continue Reading

  • DTTV (digital terrestrial television)

    DTTV (digital terrestrial television, sometimes also abbreviated DTT) is digital television (DTV) broadcast entirely over earthbound circuits.Continue Reading

  • Bel

    In electronics and communications, the Bel expresses the logarithmic ratio between two levels of signal power, voltage, or current.Continue Reading

  • Shannon's Law

    Shannon's Law, formulated by Claude Shannon, a mathematician who helped build the foundations for the modern computer, is a statement in information theory that expresses the maximum possible data speed that can be obtained in a data channel.Continue Reading

  • Direct Access File System (DAFS)

    Direct Access File System (DAFS) is a network file system, similar to Network File System (NFS) and Common Internet File System (CIFS), that allows applications to transfer data while bypassing operating system control, buffering, and network ...Continue Reading

  • autofax

    Autofax is the automatic (computer-initiated) sending of a facsimile (fax) message over a network in one of two ways: ( to a receiving computer or fax machine that is always ready to receive and store or immediately print such transmissions or (2), ...Continue Reading

  • G.703

    G.703 is a CCITT standard for transmitting voice over digital carriers such as T1 and E1. G.703 provides the specifications for pulse code modulation (PCM) at data rates from 64 Kbps to 2.048 Mbps.Continue Reading

  • IPLC (international private leased circuit)

    An IPLC (international private leased circuit) is a point-to-point private line used by an organization to communicate between offices that are geographically dispersed throughout the world.Continue Reading

  • GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System)

    GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) is a satellite system that is used to pinpoint the geographic location of a user's receiver anywhere in the world.Continue Reading

  • EtherLoop

    EtherLoop, sometimes called next generation DSL or second generation DSL, combines features of Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) with features of Ethernet to provide both voice and data transmission (including Internet connection) over any ordinary ...Continue Reading

  • wrap plug

    A wrap plug, also known as a loopback plug, is a special plug that can be inserted into a port on a communications device to perform a diagnostic test called a loopback test.Continue Reading

  • Simputer (simple inexpensive mobile computer)

    The Simputer (short for simple inexpensive mobile computer) is an inexpensive, Web-enabled handheld computer designed for use by people in developing countries.Continue Reading

  • electronic program guide (EPG)

    An electronic program guide (EPG) is an application used with digital set-top boxes and newer television sets to list current and scheduled programs that are or will be available on each channel and a short summary or commentary for each program.Continue Reading

  • tree network

    In telecommunication networks, a tree network is a combination of two or more star networks connected together.Continue Reading

  • satellite news gathering (SNG)

    Satellite news gathering (SNG) is the use of mobile communications equipment for the purpose of worldwide newscasting.Continue Reading

  • care-of address

    In Internet routing, a care-of address is a temporary IP address for a mobile node (mobile device) that enables message delivery when the device is connecting from somewhere other than its home network.Continue Reading

  • home address

    In the Mobile Internet Protocol (Mobile IP), a home address is the relatively permanent IP address given to a mobile node.Continue Reading

  • NIC handle (Network Information Center handle)

    A NIC (Network Information Center) handle is an alphanumeric character sequence that is unique for each entry in the database of all Internet domain name registrants.Continue Reading

  • Parlay

    Parlay (pronounced PAHR-LAY as in the French verb "parler" - to speak) is an evolving set of specifications for industry-standard application programming interfaces (APIs) for managing network "edge" services such as call control, messaging, and ...Continue Reading

  • Number Translation Service (NTS)

    In the U.K., Number Translation Service (NTS) is the service of routing a telephone call with a non-geographic number beginning with 07, 08, or 09 to a hidden geographic or mobile number.Continue Reading

  • Transport Services Access Point (TSAP)

    A Transport Services Access Point (TSAP) is an end-point for communication between the Transport layer (layer 4) and the Session layer in the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) reference model.Continue Reading

  • file server

    In the client/server model, a file server is a computer responsible for the central storage and management of data files so that other computers on the same network can access the files.Continue Reading

  • LAN party

    A LAN party is a gathering in which gamers (devotees of computer games) gather to share a local area network (LAN) and participate in extended gaming sessions of popular games such as Quake, Doom, or Wolfenstein.Continue Reading

  • catchment area

    In the context of communication networks, a catchment area describes the geographical boundries of a network's components, including its connecting lines.Continue Reading

  • bus network

    A bus network is an arrangement in a local area network (LAN) in which each node (workstation or other device) is connected to a main cable or link called the bus.Continue Reading

  • Kazaa Media Desktop (KMD)

    Kazaa (its full name is Kazaa Media Desktop or KMD) is a decentralized Internet peer-to-peer (P2P) file-sharing program owned by Sharman Networks.Continue Reading

  • DoPa (DoCoMo Packet Transmission)

    DoPa (DoCoMo Packet Transmission) is a packet-switched network service developed by NTT DoCoMo in Japan for Internet connection from mobile devices.Continue Reading

  • Direct Outward Dialing (DOD)

    Direct Outward Dialing (DOD) is a service of a local phone company (or local exchange carrier) that allows subscribers within a company's private branch exchange (PBX) system to connect to outside lines directly.Continue Reading

  • MILNET

    MILNET was the name given to the part of ARPANET, the forerunner of the Internet, that was designated for nonclassified U.S. military use.Continue Reading

  • Manchester encoding

    In data transmission, Manchester encoding is a form of digital encoding in which data bits are represented by transitions from one logical state to the other.Continue Reading

  • Telecommunications Display Device (TDD)

    A Telecommunications Display Device (TDD), also known as a text telephone, is a telephone equipped with a keyboard and a display for people who are hearing- or speech-impaired.Continue Reading

  • Toslink

    Toslink is a connector format for fiber optic digital audio cables.Continue Reading

  • file transfer

    File transfer is the movement of one or more files from one location to another.Continue Reading

  • Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP)

    Cisco Certified Network Professional (CCNP) is an intermediate-level certification in the Cisco certified professional program.Continue Reading

  • non-geographic number

    A non-geographic number, also called a virtual number, is a telephone number associated with a country, but not to any single geographic location within that country.Continue Reading

  • Network Service Access Point (NSAP)

    The Network Service Access Point (NSAP) is one of two types of hierarchical addresses (the other type is the network entity title) used to implement Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) network layer addressing.Continue Reading

  • QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation)

    QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation) is a method of combining two amplitude-modulated (AM) signals into a single channel, thereby doubling the effective bandwidth.Continue Reading

  • Source-route transparent (SRT) bridging

    Source-route transparent (SRT) bridging is a bridging scheme developed by IBM that combines source-route bridging (SRB) and transparent bridging in the same network.Continue Reading

  • reverse Telnet (direct Telnet)

    Reverse Telnet (sometimes called direct Telnet) is the initiation of a Telnet session from a computer system to one of its remote users.Continue Reading

  • passive FTP

    Passive FTP (sometimes referred to as PASV FTP because it involves the FTP PASV command) is a more secure form of data transfer in which the flow of data is set up and initiated by the File Transfer Program (FTP) client rather than by the FTP server...Continue Reading

  • anti-replay protocol

    The anti-replay protocol is part of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) standard.Continue Reading

  • MAC address (Media Access Control address)

    In a local area network (LAN) or other network, the MAC (Media Access Control) address is your computer's unique hardware number.Continue Reading

  • megahertz (MHz)

    The megahertz, abbreviated MHz, is a unit of alternating current (AC) or electromagnetic (EM) wave frequency equal to one million hertz (1,000,000 Hz).Continue Reading

  • shielded twisted pair

    This definition closely duplicates the definition for twisted pair.Continue Reading

  • data link control (DLC)

    DLC also is an abbreviation for digital loop carrier.Continue Reading

  • HDSL (High bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line)

    Also see our Fast guide to DSL. HDSL (High bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line), one of the earliest forms of DSL, is used for wideband digital transmission within a corporate site and between the telephone company and a customer.Continue Reading

  • connection

    In telecommunication and computing in general, a connection is the successful completion of necessary arrangements so that two or more parties (for example, people or programs) can communicate at a long distance.Continue Reading

  • Personal Access Communications System (PACS)

    Personal Access Communications System (PACS) is a type of wireless telephone network compatible with telephone sets, answering machines, fax machines, and computers.Continue Reading

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