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Troubleshooting Wireless Networks

  • delay-tolerant network

    A delay-tolerant network is a network designed to operate effectively over extreme distances such as those encountered in space communications or on an interplanetary scale... (Continued) Continue Reading

  • logical router

    A logical router is a configured partition of a traditional network hardware, or "physical," router. Continue Reading

  • Certified Wireless Networking Professional (CWNP)

    Certified Wireless Networking Professional (CWNP)is the name for the family of wireless certifications from Planet3Wireless. Continue Reading

  • CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data)

    CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data) is a specification for supporting wireless access to the Internet and other public packet-switched networks. Continue Reading

  • USSD (Unstructured Supplementary Service Data)

    USSD (Unstructured Supplementary Service Data) is a Global System for Mobile(GSM) communication technology that is used to send text between a mobile phone and an application program in the network. Continue Reading

  • UHF (ultrahigh frequency)

    The UHF (ultrahigh frequency) range of the radio spectrum is the band extending from 300 MHz to 3 GHz.Continue Reading

  • VHF (very high frequency)

    The VHF (very high frequency) range of the radio spectrum is the band extending from 30 MHz to 300 MHz.Continue Reading

  • infrared transmission

    Infrared transmission refers to energy in the region of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum at wavelength s longer than those of visible light, but shorter than those of radioContinue Reading

  • iDEN (Integrated Digital Enhanced Network)

    iDEN (Integrated Digital Enhanced Network) is a wireless technology from Motorola combining the capabilities of a digital cellular telephone, two-way radio, alphanumeric pager and data/fax modem in a single network.Continue Reading

  • GTAG (Global Tag)

    GTAG (Global Tag) is a standardization initiative of the Uniform Code Council (UCC) and the European Article Numbering Association (EAN) for asset tracking and logistics based on radio frequency identification (RFID).Continue Reading

  • CTI (computer-telephony integration)

    CTI (computer-telephony integration), or sometimes simply "computer telephony," is the use of computers to manage telephone calls.Continue Reading

  • SIGTRAN (Signaling Transport)

    SIGTRAN (for Signaling Transport) is the standard telephony protocol used to transport Signaling System 7 (SS7) signals over the Internet.Continue Reading

  • virtual area network (VAN)

    A virtual area network (VAN) is a network on which users are enabled to share a more visual sense of community through high band-width connections.Continue Reading

  • virtual private LAN service (VPLS)

    Virtual private LAN service (VPLS) is a technology that makes it possible to connect geographically dispersed local area networks (LANs) logically over the Internet.Continue Reading

  • GMPLS (Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching or Multiprotocol Lambda Switching)

    GMPLS (Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching), also known as Multiprotocol Lambda Switching, is a technology that provides enhancements to Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) to support network switching for time, wavelength, and space ...Continue Reading

  • hardware VPN

    A hardware VPN is a virtual private network ( VPN) based on a single, stand-alone device.Continue Reading

  • extranet

    An extranet is a private network that uses Internet technology and the public telecommunication system to securely share part of a business's information or operations with suppliers, vendors, partners, customers, or other businesses.Continue Reading

  • Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP)

    Layer Two Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) is an extension of the Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) used by an Internet service provider (ISP) to enable the operation of a virtual private network (VPN) over the Internet.Continue Reading

  • routing table

    A routing table is a set of rules, often viewed in table format, that is used to determine where data packets traveling over an Internet Protocol (IP) network will be directed.Continue Reading

  • hardware load-balancing device (HLD)

    A hardware load-balancing device (HLD), also known as a layer 4-7 router, is a physical unit that directs computers to individual servers in a network, based on factors such as server processor utilization, the number of connections to a server, or ...Continue Reading

  • WAN interface card (WIC)

    A WAN interface card, or WIC, is a specialized network interface card (NIC) that allows devices to connect to a wide area network.Continue Reading

  • split horizon

    Split horizon is a method of preventing a routing loop in a network.Continue Reading

  • route poisoning

    Route poisoning is a method of preventing a network from sending packets through a route that has become invalid.Continue Reading

  • reverse DNS (rDNS)

    Reverse DNS (rDNS) is a method of resolving an IP address into a domain name, just as the domain name system (DNS) resolves domain names into associated IP addresses.Continue Reading

  • start of authority record

    A start of authority (SOA) record is information stored in a domain name system (DNS) zone about that zone and about other DNS records.Continue Reading

  • core router

    A core router is a router that forwards packets to computer hosts within a network (but not between networks).Continue Reading

  • CRC-4 (Cyclic Redundancy Check 4)

    CRC-4 (Cyclic Redundancy Check 4) is a form of cyclic redundancy checking (a method of checking for errors in transmitted data) that is used on E-1 trunk lines.Continue Reading

  • segmentation and reassembly (SAR)

    In a packet-switched telecommunication network, segmentation and reassembly (SAR, sometimes just referred to as segmentation) is the process of breaking a packet into smaller units before transmission and reassembling them into the proper order at ...Continue Reading

  • home agent

    In Mobile Internet Protocol (Mobile IP), a home agent is a router on a mobile node's home network that maintains information about the device's current location, as identified in its care-of address.Continue Reading

  • red route

    A red route is one of three categories of Internet route states defined by the Policy Analysis of Internet Routing (PAIR) project, an initiative dedicated to the development of tools that ISPs (Internet service providers), network operators, and end...Continue Reading

  • PAIR (Policy Analysis of Internet Routing)

    The Policy Analysis of Internet Routing (PAIR) project is a Merit Network initiative dedicated to developing tools that Internet service providers (ISPs), network operators, and end users can use to troubleshoot Internet routing and policy problems.Continue Reading

  • green route

    A green route is one of three categories of Internet route states defined by the Policy Analysis of Internet Routing (PAIR) project, an initiative dedicated to the development of tools that ISPs (Internet service providers), network operators, and ...Continue Reading

  • grey route

    A grey route is one of three categories of Internet routes defined by the Policy Analysis of Internet Routing (PAIR) project, an initiative dedicated to the development of tools that ISPs (Internet service providers), network operators, and end ...Continue Reading

  • cross-bar switch

    In a network, a cross-bar switch is a device that is capable of channeling data between any two devices that are attached to it up to its maximum number of ports.Continue Reading

  • mrouter (multicast router)

    An mrouter, or multicast router, is a router program that distinguishes between multicast and unicast packets and determines how they should be distributed along the Multicast Internet (sometimes known as the Multicast Backbone or MBone).Continue Reading

  • one-armed router

    A one-armed router is a router that routes traffic between virtual local area networks (VLANs).Continue Reading

  • dynamic port numbers (private port numbers)

    The dynamic port numbers (also known as the private port numbers) are the port numbers that are available for use by any application to use in communicating with any other application, using the Internet's Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or the ...Continue Reading

  • NWay

    NWay is a telecommunications protocol used with Ethernet networking devices (such as router and switch) to automatically negotiate the highest possible common transmission speed between two devices.Continue Reading

  • Molex

    In business since 1938, Molex manufactures electronic, electrical, and optical fiber connectors.Continue Reading

  • routing switch

    In a network, a 'routing switch' is a device that combines the functions of a switch, which forwards data by looking at a physical device address, and a router, which forwards packets by locating a next hop address.Continue Reading

  • near-end crosstalk (NeXT)

    Also see NeXT, a computer company that developed a personal computer with an advanced user interface and operating system.Continue Reading

  • ATM (asynchronous transfer mode)

    ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) is a dedicated-connection switching technology that organizes digital data into 53-byte cell units and transmits them over a physical medium using digital signal technology.Continue Reading

  • High-Speed Serial Interface (HSSI)

    High-Speed Serial Interface (HSSI) is a short-distance communications interface that is commonly used to interconnect routing and switching devices on local area networks (LANs) with the higher-speed lines of a wide area network (WAN).Continue Reading

  • autonomous system (AS)

    On the Internet, an autonomous system (AS) is the unit of router policy, either a single network or a group of networks that is controlled by a common network administrator (or group of administrators) on behalf of a single administrative entity (...Continue Reading

  • stackable hub

    A stackable hub is a hub designed to be connected and stacked or positioned on top of another hub, forming an expanding stack.Continue Reading

  • unicast

    Unicast is communication between a single sender and a single receiver over a network.Continue Reading

  • split

    Among Internet Relay Chat (IRC) users, a split is a condition where two or more IRC servers are temporarily unable to communicate.Continue Reading

  • root server system

    On the Internet, the root server system is the way that an authoritative master list of all top-level domain names (such as com, net, org,and individual country codes) is maintained and made available to all routers.Continue Reading

  • path

    In a computer operating system, a path is the route through a file system to a particular file.Continue Reading

  • packet-switched

    Packet-switched describes the type of network in which relatively small units of data called packets are routed through a network based on the destination address contained within each packet.Continue Reading

  • Usenet

    Usenet is a collection of user-submitted notes or messages on various subjects that are posted to servers on a worldwide network.Continue Reading

  • offline

    Offline is the condition of being capable of but currently not connected to a network of computers or other devices.Continue Reading

  • online

    Online is the condition of being connected to a network of computers or other devices.Continue Reading

  • runt

    In networks, a runt is a packet that is too small.Continue Reading

  • networking chip

    A networking chip is a microprocessor that provides the logic for sending and receiving data (including voice and video) on a telecommunications network so that additional devices are not needed for these functions.Continue Reading

  • internetworking

    Internetworking is a term used by Cisco, BBN, and other providers of network products and services as a comprehensive term for all the concepts, technologies, and generic devices that allow people and their computers to communicate across different ...Continue Reading

  • protocol-independent multicast (PIM)

    Protocol-independent multicast (PIM) is a set of four specifications that define modes of Internet multicasting to allow one-to-many and many-to-many transmission of information... (Continued)Continue Reading

  • SYN scanning

    SYN scanning is a tactic that a malicious hacker (or cracker) can use to determine the state of a communications port without establishing a full connection.Continue Reading

  • dynamic packet filter

    A dynamic packet filter is a firewall facility that can monitor the state of active connections and use this information to determine which network packets to allow through the firewall.Continue Reading

  • rule base

    In the context of a computer server acting as a firewall, a rule base is a set of rules that govern what is and what is not allowed through the firewall.Continue Reading

  • CDDI (Copper Distributed Data Interface)

    For a local area network (LAN), CDDI (Copper Distributed Data Interface) is a standard for data transmission based on FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) that uses shielded twisted-pair (STP) or unshielded twisted pair (UTP) copper wire instead ...Continue Reading

  • NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol)

    NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol) is the predominant protocol used by computer clients and servers for managing the notes posted on Usenet newsgroups.Continue Reading

  • Packet-Level Procedure (PAP)

    PAP (Packet-Level Procedure) is a full-duplex protocol for transferring packets between parties in an X.25 network.Continue Reading

  • Xmodem

    Xmodem is an error-correcting protocol for modem that was created in 1978 by Ward Christensen and became a de facto standard.Continue Reading

  • slot time

    In Ethernet and its Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detect (CSMA/CD) approach to managing which device can use the communication link next, slot time is the amount of time a device waits after a collision before retransmitting.Continue Reading

  • Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP)

    The Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) is an Internet protocol standard that specifies a way for programs to manage the real-time transmission of multimedia data over either unicast or multicast network services.Continue Reading

  • Zmodem protocol

    Zmodem is an error-correcting protocol for modems.Continue Reading

  • encapsulation

    In general, encapsulation is the inclusion of one thing within another thing so that the included thing is not apparent.Continue Reading

  • HDLC (High-level Data Link Control)

    HDLC (High-level Data Link Control) is a group of protocols or rules for transmitting data between network points (sometimes called nodes).Continue Reading

  • CCITT or ITU-T (Telecommunication Standardization Sector of the International Telecommunications)

    The CCITT, now known as the ITU-T (for Telecommunication Standardization Sector of the International Telecommunications Union), is the primary international body for fostering cooperative standards for telecommunications equipment and systems.Continue Reading

  • modem error-correcting protocols

    The protocols that modems agree on and use for checking and correcting transmission errors have evolved toward accuracy, speed, and efficiency since 1978 when the Xmodem protocol became a de facto standard.Continue Reading

  • datagram

    A datagram is, to quote the Internet's Request for Comments 1594, "a self-contained, independent entity of data carrying sufficient information to be routed from the source to the destination computer without reliance on earlier exchanges between ...Continue Reading

  • poison reverse

    In a computer network that uses the Routing Information Protocol (RIP) or other distance vector routing protocols, a poison reverse is a way in which a gateway node tells its neighbor gateways that one of the gateways is no longer connected.Continue Reading

  • Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX)

    SPX (Sequenced Packet Exchange) is the protocol for handling packet sequencing in a Novell NetWare network.Continue Reading

  • Link Control Protocol (LCP)

    In the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), the Link ControlProtocol (LCP) establishes, configures, and tests data-link Internet connections.Continue Reading

  • FG-D (Feature Group D)

    FG-D (Feature Group D) is a type of telecommunication trunk used to provide "equal access" capability from telecommunication carriers and central offices (where the switching equipment is located and customer lines are connected and terminated) to ...Continue Reading

  • WebNFS

    WebNFS is a product and proposed standard protocol from Sun Microsystems that extends its Network File System (NFS) to the Internet.Continue Reading

  • Gigabit Ethernet

    Gigabit Ethernet, a transmission technology based on the Ethernet frame format and protocol used in local area networks (LANs), provides a data rate of 1 billion bits per second (one gigabit). (Continued...)Continue Reading

  • COFDM

    COFDM is a modulation scheme that divides a single digital signal across 1,000 or more signal carriers simultaneously.Continue Reading

  • Multicast Dissemination Protocol (MDP)

    The Multicast Dissemination Protocol (MDP) is a communications protocol for one-to-many transmissions in wired or wireless networks.Continue Reading

  • Ymodem

    Ymodem is an error-correcting protocol for a modem that uses larger data blocks for greater efficiency.Continue Reading

  • Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP)

    Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP) is a network management protocol built on the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) communication model.Continue Reading

  • SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol)

    SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol) is a protocol for transmitting multiple streams of data at the same time between two end points that have established a connection in a network.Continue Reading

  • EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol)

    EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol) is a network protocol that lets routers exchange information more efficiently than with earlier network protocols.Continue Reading

  • Quad FastEthernet (QFE)

    Quad FastEthernet (QFE) is a network interface card (NIC) manufactured by Sun Microsystems that is designed to enhance the bandwidth of a Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI)-based server using Sun Microsystem's Solaris 8 or later operating ...Continue Reading

  • RSVP (Resource Reservation Protocol)

    RSVP (Resource Reservation Protocol) is a set of communication rules that allows channels or paths on the Internet to be reserved for the multicast (one source to many receivers) transmission of video and other high-bandwidth messages.Continue Reading

  • PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet)

    PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet) is a specification for connecting multiple computer users on an Ethernet local area network to a remote site through common customer premises equipment, which is the telephone company's term for a modem ...Continue Reading

  • foreign network

    In the Mobile Internet Protocol (Mobile IP), a foreign network is any network other than the home network to which a mobile device may be connected.Continue Reading

  • supernetting or Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)

    Supernetting, also called Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR), is a way to aggregate multiple Internet addresses of the same class.Continue Reading

  • UUCP (UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Protocol)

    UUCP (UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Protocol) is a set of UNIX programs for copying (sending) files between different UNIX systems and for sending commands to be executed on another system.Continue Reading

  • sliding windows (windowing)

    Sliding windows, a technique also known as windowing, is used by the Internet's Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) as a method of controlling the flow of packets between two computers or network hosts.Continue Reading

  • foreign agent

    In Mobile Internet Protocol (Mobile IP), a foreign agent is a router serving as a mobility agent for a mobile node.Continue Reading

  • Next Hop Resolution Protocol (NHRP)

    In a computer network, the Next Hop Resolution Protocol (NHRP) is a protocol or method that can be used so that a computer sending data to another computer can learn the most direct route (the fewest number of hops) to the receiving computer.Continue Reading

  • Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP)

    Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP), also known as H.248 and Megaco, is a standard protocol for handling the signaling and session management needed during a multimedia conference.Continue Reading

  • Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP)

    RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) is a protocol by which a physical machine in a local area network can request to learn its IP address from a gateway server's Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) table or cache.Continue Reading

  • FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface)

    FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) is a set of ANSI and ISO standards for data transmission on fiber optic lines in a local area network (LAN) that can extend in range up to 200 km (124 miles).Continue Reading

  • MBone (Multicast Internet)

    The MBone, now sometimes called the Multicast Internet, is an arranged use of a portion of the Internet for Internet Protocol (IP) multicasting (sending files - usually audio and video streams - to multiple users at the same time somewhat as radio ...Continue Reading

  • NAK (negative acknowledgment or not acknowledged)

    NAK is an abbreviation for negative acknowledgment or not acknowledged.Continue Reading

  • Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP)

    Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) is a routing protocol that allows host computers on the Internet to use multiple routers that act as a single virtual router, maintaining connectivity even if the first hop router fails, because other routers are ...Continue Reading

  • Broadband Integrated Services Digital Network (BISDN)

    BISDN is both a concept and a set of services and developing standards for integrating digital transmission services in a broadband network of fiber optic and radio media.Continue Reading

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