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Network Infrastructure

  • control plane (CP)

    The control plane is the part of a network that carries signaling traffic and is responsible for routing. Continue Reading

  • MHz

    The megahertz, abbreviated MHz, is a unit of alternating current (AC) or electromagnetic (EM) wave frequency equal to one million hertz (1,000,000 Hz). Continue Reading

  • data link layer

    The Data-Link Layer is the protocol layer in a program that handles the moving of data in and out across a physical link in a network. Continue Reading

  • Cisco Integrated Service Routers Generation 2 (ISR G2)

    ISR G2 is a second generation Integrated Services Router (ISR) from Cisco Systems, Inc. Continue Reading

  • link-load balancer (link balancer)

    A link load balancer, also called a link balancer, is a network appliance that distributes in-bound and out-bound traffic to and from multiple Internet Service Providers (ISPs) links. Continue Reading

  • loose coupling

    Loose coupling is a method of interconnecting the components in a system or network so that those components, also called elements, depend on each other to the least extent practicable... (Continued)Continue Reading

  • Wireshark filter tutorial: A Wireshark guide from Laura Chappell

    This Wireshark guide from Laura Chappell examines the open source network monitoring tool and its many uses. Use this Wireshark filter tutorial to find out what the network analyzer can do for your network.Continue Reading

  • customer premises equipment (CPE)

    Customer premises equipment (CPE) is telephone or other service provider equipment that is located on the customer's premises (physical location) rather than on the provider's premises or in between.Continue Reading

  • Regional Internet Registry (RIR)

    A Regional Internet Registry (RIR) is a not-for-profit organization that oversees Internet Protocol (IP) address space and the Autonomous System (AS) numbers within a specific geographical region. Each RIR is tasked with creating local policy for ...Continue Reading

  • IP network design guide: Managing an IP-based network

    Network design underlies the performance of your enterprise IP network. This four part guide by Cormac Long offers you a comprehensive roadmap to designing IP-based networks, from the basic principles involved to the more complex finishing touches.Continue Reading

  • logical network

    A logical network is one that appears to the user as a single, separate entity although it might in fact be either just a part of a larger network or an entity connecting multiple networks. A logical network is defined by its IP addressing scheme.Continue Reading

  • Citrix Access Gateway

    Access Gateway is a secure application access solution that provides administrators application-level control allowing users application access from anywhere.Continue Reading

  • port interface card (PIC)

    A port interface card (PIC) is a computer circuit board that provides multiple, diverse interfaces for connections to external networks. In effect, a PIC is an enhanced network interface card (NIC)... (Continued)Continue Reading

  • Peltier effect

    The Peltier effect is a temperature difference created by applying a voltage between two electrodes connected to a sample of semiconductor material. This phenomenon can be useful when it is necessary to transfer heat from one medium to another on a ...Continue Reading

  • thermoelectric cooling

    Thermoelectric cooling is a way to remove thermal energy from a medium, device or component by applying a voltage of constant polarity to a junction between dissimilar electrical conductors or semiconductors...(continued)Continue Reading

  • MDI/MDIX (medium dependent interface/MDI crossover)

    MDI/MDIX is a type of Ethernet port connection using twisted pair cabling.Continue Reading

  • FECN/BECN (forward explicit congestion notification/backward explicit congestion notification)

    In a frame relay network, FECN (forward explicit congestion notification) is a header bit transmitted by the source (sending) terminal requesting that the destination (receiving) terminal slow down its requests for data.Continue Reading

  • route aggregation

    Route aggregation is an alternate term for route summarization, which is a method used to minimize the number of routing tables required in an IP network.Continue Reading

  • Learning Path: Network and Web Site Administration

    NETWORK AND WEB SITE ADMINISTRATION....network operations center (NOC) - internetworking - firewall - proxy server - DMZ - NAT - EGP - BGP - peering - colocation - IGP - DHCP - network operating system - Novell Directory Services (NDS) - nslookup - ...Continue Reading

  • Learning Path: Network Infrastructure

    NETWORK INFRASTRUCTURE...infrastructure - backbone - network access point (NAP)- vBNS - Internet 2 - MAE - peering - router - switch - bridge - hub - stackable hub - repeater - brouter - aggregator - gateway - point-of-presence (POP) - colocation - ...Continue Reading

  • NIS (Network Information System)

    NIS (Network Information System) is a network naming and administration system for smaller networks that was developed by Sun Microsystems.Continue Reading

  • pseudowire

    Pseudowire ( sometimes spelled as pseudo wire or abbreviated as PW) is a mechanism for emulating various networking or telecommunications services across packet-switched networks using Ethernet, IP, or MPLS... (Continued)Continue Reading

  • wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM)

    Wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) is a method of combining multiple signals on laser beams at various infared (IR) wavelengths for transmission along fiber optic media. Each laser is modulated by an independent set of signals. ...Continue Reading

  • netstat

    Netstat is a common command line TCP/IP networking utility available in most versions of Windows, Linux, UNIX and other operating systems... (Continued)Continue Reading

  • carrier detect

    Carrier detect (see modem lights) is a control signal between a modem and a computer that indicates that the modem detects a "live" carrier that can be used for sending and receiving information.Continue Reading

  • concentrator

    As generally used, a concentrator is a device that acts as an efficient forwarder of data transmission signals.Continue Reading

  • VxWorks

    VxWorks is a real-time operating system (RTOS) that can be used in embedded systems... (Continued)Continue Reading

  • Metcalfe's Law

    Metcalfe's Law is expressed in two general ways: The number of possible cross-connections in a network grow as the square of the number of computers in the network increases.Continue Reading

  • logical router

    A logical router is a configured partition of a traditional network hardware, or "physical," router.Continue Reading

  • GMPLS (Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching or Multiprotocol Lambda Switching)

    GMPLS (Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching), also known as Multiprotocol Lambda Switching, is a technology that provides enhancements to Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) to support network switching for time, wavelength, and space ...Continue Reading

  • hardware VPN

    A hardware VPN is a virtual private network ( VPN) based on a single, stand-alone device.Continue Reading

  • routing table

    A routing table is a set of rules, often viewed in table format, that is used to determine where data packets traveling over an Internet Protocol (IP) network will be directed.Continue Reading

  • split horizon

    Split horizon is a method of preventing a routing loop in a network.Continue Reading

  • route poisoning

    Route poisoning is a method of preventing a network from sending packets through a route that has become invalid.Continue Reading

  • core router

    A core router is a router that forwards packets to computer hosts within a network (but not between networks).Continue Reading

  • CRC-4 (Cyclic Redundancy Check 4)

    CRC-4 (Cyclic Redundancy Check 4) is a form of cyclic redundancy checking (a method of checking for errors in transmitted data) that is used on E-1 trunk lines.Continue Reading

  • segmentation and reassembly (SAR)

    In a packet-switched telecommunication network, segmentation and reassembly (SAR, sometimes just referred to as segmentation) is the process of breaking a packet into smaller units before transmission and reassembling them into the proper order at ...Continue Reading

  • grey route

    A grey route is one of three categories of Internet routes defined by the Policy Analysis of Internet Routing (PAIR) project, an initiative dedicated to the development of tools that ISPs (Internet service providers), network operators, and end ...Continue Reading

  • cross-bar switch

    In a network, a cross-bar switch is a device that is capable of channeling data between any two devices that are attached to it up to its maximum number of ports.Continue Reading

  • Molex

    In business since 1938, Molex manufactures electronic, electrical, and optical fiber connectors.Continue Reading

  • routing switch

    In a network, a 'routing switch' is a device that combines the functions of a switch, which forwards data by looking at a physical device address, and a router, which forwards packets by locating a next hop address.Continue Reading

  • stackable hub

    A stackable hub is a hub designed to be connected and stacked or positioned on top of another hub, forming an expanding stack.Continue Reading

  • split

    Among Internet Relay Chat (IRC) users, a split is a condition where two or more IRC servers are temporarily unable to communicate.Continue Reading

  • packet-switched

    Packet-switched describes the type of network in which relatively small units of data called packets are routed through a network based on the destination address contained within each packet.Continue Reading

  • offline

    Offline is the condition of being capable of but currently not connected to a network of computers or other devices.Continue Reading

  • online

    Online is the condition of being connected to a network of computers or other devices.Continue Reading

  • encapsulation

    In general, encapsulation is the inclusion of one thing within another thing so that the included thing is not apparent.Continue Reading

  • MBone (Multicast Internet)

    The MBone, now sometimes called the Multicast Internet, is an arranged use of a portion of the Internet for Internet Protocol (IP) multicasting (sending files - usually audio and video streams - to multiple users at the same time somewhat as radio ...Continue Reading

  • NAK (negative acknowledgment or not acknowledged)

    NAK is an abbreviation for negative acknowledgment or not acknowledged.Continue Reading

  • round-trip time (RTT)

    Round-trip time (RTT), also called round-trip delay, is the time required for a signal pulse or packet to travel from a specific source to a specific destination and back again...(Continued)Continue Reading

  • policy-based networking

    Policy-based networking is the management of a network so that various kinds of traffic - data, voice, and video - get the priority of availability and bandwidth needed to serve the network's users effectively.Continue Reading

  • Network Job Entry (NJE)

    Network Job Entry (NJE) is an application designed for the transfer of commands, messages, programs, and jobs among different computing systems in a network.Continue Reading

  • n-tier

    An n-tier application program is one that is distributed among three or more separate computers in a distributed network.Continue Reading

  • response time

    According to the IBM Dictionary of Computing (which cites International Organization for Standardization Information Technology Vocabulary as the source), response time is: The elapsed time between the end of an inquiry or demand on a computer ...Continue Reading

  • circuit-switched

    Circuit-switched is a type of network in which a physical path is obtained for and dedicated to a single connection between two end-points in the network for the duration of the connection.Continue Reading

  • bottleneck

    A bottleneck is a stage in a process that causes the entire process to slow down or stop. In a communications context, a bottleneck is a point in the enterprise where the flow of data is impaired or stopped entirely... (Continued)Continue Reading

  • Introduction -- Chapter 1 of 'Network Analysis, Architecture and Design'

    This chapter introduces the analysis, architecture, and design processes. Described are the fundamental concepts of the processes of network analysis, architecture, and design; systems and services; as well as their characteristics and prepares the ...Continue Reading

  • wideband

    Wideband is a transmission medium or channel that has a wider bandwidth than one voice channel (with a carrier wave of a certain modulated frequency).Continue Reading

  • baseband

    Describes a telecommunication system in which information is carried in digital form on a single unmultiplexed signal channel on the transmission medium.Continue Reading

  • attenuation-to-crosstalk ratio (ACR) or headroom

    Attenuation-to-crosstalk ratio (ACR), also called headroom, is the difference, expressed as a figure in decibels (dB), between the signal attenuation produced by a wire or cable transmission medium and the near-end crosstalk (NEXT).Continue Reading

  • layer 2

    Layer 2 refers to the Data Link layer of the commonly-referenced multilayered communication model, Open Systems Interconnection (OSI).Continue Reading

  • permanent virtual circuit (PVC)

    A permanent virtual circuit (PVC) is a software-defined logical connection in a network such as a frame relay network.Continue Reading

  • wire speed

    Wire speed refers to the rate of data transfer a given telecommunication technology provides at the physical wire level.Continue Reading

  • network computer (NC)

    A network computer (NC) is a concept from Oracle and Sun Microsystems that describes a low-cost personal computer for business networks that, like the NetPC, would be configured with only essential equipment (including CD-ROM players, diskette ...Continue Reading

  • acoustic coupler

    An acoustic coupler is a hardware device that enables a modem (a device that converts signals from analog to digital and from digital back to analog) to connect to a voice circuit.Continue Reading

  • jabber (in networks)

    In networks, a jabber is any device that is handling electrical signals improperly, usually with negative results for the rest of the network.Continue Reading

  • 10-high-day busy period (10HD busy period)

    In designing and assessing networks, the peak load is sometimes measured using the 10HD (10-high-day) busy period method.Continue Reading

  • Novell Directory Services (NDS)

    Novell Directory Services (NDS) is a popular software product for managing access to computer resources and keeping track of the users of a network, such as a company's intranet, from a single point of administration.Continue Reading

  • network access server (NAS)

    A network access server (NAS) is a computer server that enables an independent service provider (ISP) to provide connected customers with Internet access.Continue Reading

  • Kbps (kilobits per second)

    In the U.S., Kbps stands for kilobits per second (thousands of bits per second) and is a measure of bandwidth (the amount of data that can flow in a given time) on a data transmission medium.Continue Reading

  • terminal proxy server (TPS)

    A terminal proxy server (TPS) is a program that acts as an interface for voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) telephone sets... (Continued)Continue Reading

  • VPN appliance

    A VPN (virtual private network) appliance is a network device equipped with enhanced security features... (Continued)Continue Reading

  • channel-associated signaling (CAS)

    Channel-associated signaling (CAS) is signaling (for example, in a T-carrier system line) in which control signals, such as those for synchronizing and bounding frames, are carried in the same channels as voice and data signals... (Continued)Continue Reading

  • fax

    A fax (short for facsimile and sometimes called telecopying) is the telephonic transmission of scanned-in printed material (text or images), usually to a telephone number associated with a printer or other output device.Continue Reading

  • OSI model: Crash Course

    The OSI model is the conceptual backbone of most enterprise networks, but do you remember all the details? Read our rundown of the OSI model and what all those layers do.Continue Reading

  • port

    On computer and telecommunication devices, a port (noun) is generally a specific place for being physically connected to some other device, usually with a socket and plug of some kind.Continue Reading

  • acceleration hardware

    Acceleration hardware is a general term that refers to devices that speed up data communications, storage and retrieval, encryption and decryption, mathematical operations, graphics, and Web page viewing. Acceleration hardware can consist of an ...Continue Reading

  • chiral fiber

    Chiral fiber is a specialized optical fiber medium with its core twisted into a helical shape.Continue Reading

  • Infranet Initiative

    The Infranet Initiative is a collaborative effort to develop a high-performance universal public network that would serve as a supplement to the Internet for businesses and other high-demand users.Continue Reading

  • zone

    In general, a zone is an area of administration.Continue Reading

  • multimode fiber

    In optical fiber technology, multimode fiber is optical fiber that is designed to carry multiple light rays or modes concurrently, each at a slightly different reflection angle within the optical fiber core.Continue Reading

  • RCA connector

    An RCA connector is a plug and a jack designed for use with coaxial cable for frequencies ranging from the very lowest up to several megahertz.Continue Reading

  • gigapop (gigabit point-of-presence)

    Gigapop is short for gigabit point-of-presence, an access point to Internet2, the network collaboration between universities and partners in industry and government to develop advanced Internet technologies and applications such as telemedicine and ...Continue Reading

  • whiteboard

    A whiteboard is a non-electronic variation of the traditional "rewriteable" schoolroom blackboard, but is white instead of black and of a material that can be written on with colored markers (known as dry erase markers).Continue Reading

  • E-ZPass

    E-ZPass is a toll collection system in the northeastern U.S. that uses RFID technology to allow a driver to pass through a tollbooth and pay the toll without stopping the vehicle.Continue Reading

  • autofax

    Autofax is the automatic (computer-initiated) sending of a facsimile (fax) message over a network in one of two ways: ( to a receiving computer or fax machine that is always ready to receive and store or immediately print such transmissions or (2), ...Continue Reading

  • wrap plug

    A wrap plug, also known as a loopback plug, is a special plug that can be inserted into a port on a communications device to perform a diagnostic test called a loopback test.Continue Reading

  • Simputer (simple inexpensive mobile computer)

    The Simputer (short for simple inexpensive mobile computer) is an inexpensive, Web-enabled handheld computer designed for use by people in developing countries.Continue Reading

  • NIC handle (Network Information Center handle)

    A NIC (Network Information Center) handle is an alphanumeric character sequence that is unique for each entry in the database of all Internet domain name registrants.Continue Reading

  • Transport Services Access Point (TSAP)

    A Transport Services Access Point (TSAP) is an end-point for communication between the Transport layer (layer 4) and the Session layer in the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) reference model.Continue Reading

  • Kazaa Media Desktop (KMD)

    Kazaa (its full name is Kazaa Media Desktop or KMD) is a decentralized Internet peer-to-peer (P2P) file-sharing program owned by Sharman Networks.Continue Reading

  • Manchester encoding

    In data transmission, Manchester encoding is a form of digital encoding in which data bits are represented by transitions from one logical state to the other.Continue Reading

  • Toslink

    Toslink is a connector format for fiber optic digital audio cables.Continue Reading

  • Network Service Access Point (NSAP)

    The Network Service Access Point (NSAP) is one of two types of hierarchical addresses (the other type is the network entity title) used to implement Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) network layer addressing.Continue Reading

  • data link control (DLC)

    DLC also is an abbreviation for digital loop carrier.Continue Reading

  • Evernet

    The term Evernet has been used to describe the convergence of wireless, broadband, and Internet telephony technologies that will result in the ability to be continuously connected to the Web anywhere using virtually any information device.Continue Reading

  • cable modem termination system (CMTS)

    A cable modem termination system (CMTS) is a component that exchanges digital signals with cable modems on a cable network.Continue Reading

  • transactional e-mail

    Transactional e-mail is a type of Web-based marketing in which e-mail recipients can buy goods and services directly from an e-mail message, without being redirected to the retailer's Web site.Continue Reading

  • media access management

    In the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) communication reference model, media access management is performed by the Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer of the Data-Link Layer.Continue Reading

  • registered port numbers

    The registered port numbers are the port numbers that companies and other users register with the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) for use by the applications that communicate using the Internet's Transmission Control ...Continue Reading

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