token ring

Contributor(s): John Burke

A token ring network is a local area network (LAN) in which all computers are connected in a ring or star topology and pass one or more logical tokens from host to host. Only a host that holds a token can send data, and tokens are released when receipt of the data is confirmed. Token ring networks prevent data packets from colliding on a network segment because data can only be sent by a token holder and the number of tokens available is controlled.

The most broadly deployed token ring protocols were IBM's, released in the mid-1980s, and the standardized version of it known as IEEE 802.5, which appeared in the late 1980s. The IEEE standard version provides for data transfer rates of 4, 16 or 100 Mbps.

Token ring was once widely used on LANs, but has been nearly entirely displaced by Ethernet thanks to pricing -- token ring products tended to be more expensive than Ethernet at similar speeds -- and thanks to the development of Ethernet switching and full-duplex links, which eliminated collisions as a practical concern in most situations.

Very briefly, here is how token ring works:

1. Systems in the LAN are arranged in a logical ring; each system receives data frames from its logical predecessor on the ring and sends them to its logical successor. The network may be an actual ring, with cabling connecting each node directly to its neighbors, but more often is a star, with the ring existing only logically in the wiring closet within the "multiaccess unit" to which all the hosts connect.

2. Empty information frames are continuously circulated on the ring, along with frames containing actual data; any node receiving an empty frame and having nothing to send simply forwards the empty frame.

3. When a computer has a message to send, it waits for an empty frame. When it has one, it does the following:

a) Inserts a token indicating that it is sending data in the frame -- this may be as simple as changing a zero to a one in the token section of the frame, although other schemes are possible, and is said to "hold the token" for that frame.

b) Inserts the data it wants to transmit into the payload section of the frame.

c) Sets a destination identifier on the frame.

4. When a computer receives a frame containing data (indicated by the token) it knows it cannot transmit data of its own and so it does the following:

a) If it is not the sender or the destination, it simply retransmits the frame, sending it to the next host in the ring.

b) If it is the destination for the message, it copies the message from the frame and clears the token to indicate receipt.

c) If it is the sender (and assuming the destination node has indicated receipt of the frame by clearing the token) it sees that the message has been received, removes the message payload from the frame (restoring it to "empty" status) and sends the empty frame around the ring.

The Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) also uses a token ring protocol.

This was last updated in July 2016

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What experience have you had with a token ring network?
FWIW, I went to Madge Networks (#2 in Token Ring)  in the US in late '97, when they were also developing Ethernet switching products (LANNET), and their stock was rising.  Months later, they sold LANNET to Lucent, and Madge was talking up 100 mb Token Ring - but, while 100 mb Ethernet had been out for years, and Gigabit Ethernet was emerging, there was no 100 mb Token Ring product.  I saw a Madge whitepaper claiming that upgrading to 100 mb TR would be cheaper than upgrading to 100 mb Ethernet, but it wasn't very convincing, and users were moving to Ethernet - Token Ring appeared to be on its way out, and I left.  Madge went on to buy its main Token Ring competitor, Olicom, but closed its doors in 2003.  
In token ring, first of all token is passed to those computer who want communication then again token is passed in ring topology. Data is only transfers to those computer those have a token. This prevent the data collision.
That's not quite right - All the nodes on a ring receive ALL the data on the ring - but ignore the data that's not addressed to them.  The Token represents permission to send - i.e., insert new data into the ring.  The node with the Token passes it to the next node when it has nothing left to send.  There is no collision because only the node with the Token can insert data into the ring.  Ethernet has collisions because its "listen before sending" collision avoidance protocol can still allow multiple nodes to start sending nearly simultaneously; if a collision occurs, that triggers a random wait and retry protocol.
Also, data inserted into the ring is removed only by the node that originated the data.  That allows Broadcast and Multicast frames to be delivered to multiple nodes. 
thanks alot!that was well explained.