Unfortunately, the huge growth of home and business computing was never anticipated. IPv6 has several trillion available addresses which should last a few years into the future.
IP addresses are broken into classes. Classes were used when IP addresses were first invented. Depending upon how large your organization was, depended upon which class of IP address you were given.
IN THE REAL WORLD:
IP addresses are assigned by a group called the INIA. You can also buy then from an ISP who has in turn bought a block form the INIA.
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Class A Addresses
Class B addresses
Class C Addresses
Class D and Class E Addresses
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