Most of the people think that we use transport protocol for LAN communication but in fact LAN communication based...
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on MAC address (a unique hardware address of each NIC) that can be viewed by "ipconifg/all" command. When ping command executes it searches ARP cache for destination address first. If found it uses else broadcast ICMP message. You can check your system ARP cache by "arp -a" command.
Dig Deeper on LANs (Local Area Networks)