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  • CRC-4 (Cyclic Redundancy Check 4)

    CRC-4 (Cyclic Redundancy Check 4) is a form of cyclic redundancy checking (a method of checking for errors in transmitted data) that is used on E-1 trunk lines. 

  • BYE packet

    A BYE (or Goodbye) packet is a type of Real-Time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP) packet that is sent when a participant in a multicast event leaves the session. 

  • sniffer

    In common industry usage, a sniffer (with lower case "s") is a program that monitors and analyzes network traffic, detecting bottlenecks and problems. 

  • running disparity (RD)

    Running disparity (RD or rd) is the difference between the number of logic 1 bits and logic 0 bits between the start of a data sequence and a particular instant in time during its transmission. 

  • FCAPS (fault-management, configuration, accounting, performance, and security)

    FCAPS is a network management framework created by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). FCAPS categorizes the working objectives of network management into five levels. The five levels are:  fault-management (F), the configuratio... 

  • out-of-band signaling

    Out-of-band signaling is telecommunication signaling (exchange of information in order to control a telephone call) that is done on a channel that is dedicated for the purpose and separate from the channels used for the telephone call. 

  • maximum transmission unit (MTU)

    A maximum transmission unit (MTU) is the largest size packet or frame, specified in octets (eight-bit bytes), that can be sent in a packet- or frame-based network such as the Internet. 

  • maximum segment size (MSS)

    The maximum segment size (MSS) is the largest amount of data, specified in bytes, that a computer or communications device can handle in a single, unfragmented piece. 

  • network analyzer (protocol analyzer or packet analyzer)

    A network analyzer is a combination of hardware and programming, or in some cases a stand-alone hardware device, that can be installed in a computer or network to enhance protection against malicious activity... (Continued) 

  • M2M (machine-to-machine)

    M2M is an abbreviation for machine-to-machine, or technology that supports wired or wireless communication between machines.