Optimizing Network Performance with Content Switching
Chapter 2: Understanding Layer 2, 3, and 4 Protocols
This book excerpt is from Chapter 2 of "Optimizing Network Performance with Content Switching: Server, Firewall...
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and Cache Load Balancing" by Matthew Syme/Philip Goldie, Addison-Wesley Professional, copyright 2004, ISBN 0131014684. This book will publish in July, 2003. All rights reserved. This chapter is posted with permission from Addison-Wesley Professional.
This chapter includes the following sections:
The OSI seven-layer model – What is a layer?
- The Application Layer (Layer 7)
- The Presentation Layer (Layer 6)
- The Session Layer (Layer 5)
- The Transport Layer (Layer 4)
- The Network Layer (Layer 3)
- The Data Link Layer (Layer 2)
- The Physical Layer (Layer 1)
- Putting all the layers together
Switching at the different layers
- Layer 2 switching
- Layer 3 switching and routing
Understanding Layer 4 protocols
Transport Control Protocol (TCP)
- The lifecycle of a TCP session
- Initiating a session
- Data transfer
- Terminating a session
User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
- A simple UDP data flow
- The request
- The response
Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP)
- Layer 2 and 3 redundancy
- The components of VRRP
- VRRP addressing
- VRRP operation
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