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What is the difference between an Ethernet interface on a router and sub-interface on a router?
Ethernet is the physical interface which you can see on the router. But at times we need some more interfaces which can be done using sub-interfaces. These are only logical interfaces. So if you do show interfaces on the router you can make out physical interface E0/0 from sub interface E0/0.1 or E0/0.2. Sub-interfaces are used for creating more than one subnets, etc. A single, physical interface can be logically divided into multiple, virtual sub-interfaces.